Current Research on Donor Milk

“Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk.” Pediatrics 129, no.3 (February 27, 2012):e827–841. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-3552.

Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003.

Committee on Nutrition, Section on Breastfeeding and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. “Promoting Human Milk and Breastfeeding for the Very Low Birth Weight Infant.” Pediatrics November 2021; 148(5): e2021054272. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2021-054272. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Committee on Nutrition, Section on Breastfeeding and Committee on Fetus and Newborn. “Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety and Usage Options in the United States.” Pediatrics January 2017, 139 (1) e20163440; DOI:

Guidelines for the Establishment and Operation of a Donor Human Milk Bank. Fort Worth, TX: Human Milk Banking Association of North America, 2015.

Bloom, B.T. “Safety of donor milk: a brief report.” Journal of Perinatology 36, no 5 (2016): 392 – 393. doi:10.1038/jp.2015.207.

Coscia, A., et al. “Effect of Holder pasteurisation on human milk glycosaminoglycans.” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 60, no. 1 (2015): 127-30.

Mohd-Taufek, N., “The effect of pasteurization on trace elements in donor human milk.” Journal of Perinatology 36 (2016): 897-900.

O’Connor, D. L., Ewaschuk, J.B., and Unger, S. “Human milk pasteurization: benefits and risks.” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 18, no. 3 (2015): 269-75.  doi:10.1097/mco.0000000000000160.

Peila, C., et al. “Effects of Holder pasteurization on the protein profile of human milk.” Italian Journal of Pediatrics (2016)42:36. doi:10.1186/s13052-016-0248-5.

Peila, C., Moro, G., Bertino, E., Cavallarin, L., Giribaldi, M., Giuliani, F., Cresi, F., and Coscia, A. “The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Nutrients and Biologically-Active Components in Donor Human Milk: A Review.” Nutrients 8, no. 8 (2016): 477. doi:10.3390/nu8080477.

Peila, C., Coscia, A., Bertino, E., Volti, G. L., Galvano, F., Barbagallo, I., Visser, G.H.A., and Gazzolo, D. “The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Activin A Levels in Human Milk.” Breastfeeding Medicine 11, no. 9 (2016): 469-73. doi:10.1089/bfm.2016.0049.

Yasuaki, W., and Lönnerdal, B. “Bioactive peptides released from in vitro digestion of human milk with or without pasteurization.” Pediatric Research 77, no. 4 (2015): 546-53. doi:10.1038/pr.2015.10.

Cohen, R. S., Huang, C-F. R., Xiong, S.C., and Sakamoto, P. “Cultures of Holder-Pasteurized Donor Human Milk After Use in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.” Breastfeeding Medicine 7, no. 4 (2012): 282-84. doi:10.1089/bfm.2011.0055.

Ting, M., Perrin, M.T., Allen, J.C., Osborne, J., Jones, F. and Fogleman, A.D. “Storage of Unfed and Leftover Pasteurized Human Milk.” Breastfeeding Medicine 11, no. 10 (2016): 538-43. doi:10.1089/bfm.2016.0139.

Vickers, A. M., Starks-Solis, S., Hill, D.R., and Newburg, D.S. “Pasteurized Donor Human Milk Maintains Microbiological Purity for 4 Days at 4 C.” Journal of Human Lactation 31, no. 3 (2015): 401-05. doi:10.1177/0890334415576512.

Jones, F. Best practices for expressing, storing, and handling human milk in hospitals, homes, and child care settings. Fort Worth, TX: Human Milk Banking Association of North America, 2011.

Belfort, M.B., Drouin, K., Riley, J., Gregory, K., Philipp, B., Parker, M., & Sen, S. (2017). Prevalence and Trends in donor milk use in the well-baby nursery: A survey of Northeast United States birth hospitals. Breastfeeding Medicine, 13 (1), 34 – 42.  doi:10.1089/bfm.2017.0147

Kair, L.R., Flaherman, V.J. (2017). Donor Milk or Formula: A Qualitative Study of Postpartum Mothers of Healthy Newborns. Journal of Human Lactation, 2017 Nov;33(4):710-716. doi: 10.1177/0890334417716417. Epub 2017 Aug 7

Mannel, R. & Peck, J. (2018). Outcomes associated with type of milk supplementation among late preterm infants.  Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 2018 Jul;47(4):571-582. doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2017.11.005. Epub 2017 Dec 27

Information on setting up a program on a mother-baby unit:

Drouin, K.H., Riley, J.F., Benjamin, C, Gregory, K.E., Sen, S. & Belfort, M.B. (2019). Donor Milk Policies for Level 1 Newborn Care: A Descriptive Analysis. Breastfeeding Medicine, 14 (8),

Lewis, S.C., McMahon, M., Combs, G., Smith, K., Segura-Harrison, M., & Philipp, B. (2017).  The nuts and bolts of implementing a donor milk program on a mother baby unit.  Journal of Human Lactation, 34(1), 116 – 119. doi:10.1177/0890334417740346